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understanding fouls
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HOOPZONE
Basketball
101

Foul:
Actions by players which break the rules but are not floor violations.

Away:
From-the-Play Foul - In the last two minutes of the game, illegal contact by the defense which occurs either deliberately away from the ball, and/or before the ball is released on a throw-in.

Blocking:
Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a defender not establishing position in time to prevent an opponent's drive to the basket.

Charging:
An offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a defensive player. The ball is given to the team that the foul was committed upon.

Double Foul:
When two opponents commit personal or technical fouls against each other at about the same time.

Elbowing:
Throwing your elbows during play in order to hit another player or push him away; it's a basketball foul if contact is made.

Fighting Foul:
When two or more players engage in fighting one another.

Flagrant foul:
Violent contact with an opponent. This includes hitting, kicking, and punching. This type of foul results in free throws plus the offense retaining possession of the ball after the free throws.

Hand-Checking:
Using the hands to check the progress of an offensive player when that player is in front of the defender who is using the hands.

Holding:
Restricting the movement of an opponent.

Illegal Blocking:
Illegal contact which impedes the progress of an opponent.

Illegal Screen:
A form of blocking in which the player setting the screen is still moving when the defender makes contact.

Intentional foul:
When a player makes physical contact with another player with no reasonable effort to steal the ball. It is a judgment call for the officials.

Loose Ball Foul:
A basketball foul committed while neither team has possession of the ball (such as when going for a rebound).

Offensive Foul:
Illegal contact, committed by an offensive player, after the ball is live.

Over-the-Back:
Infringing on the vertical plane of, and making contact with, a player who is in position and attempting to rebound.

Personal Foul:
Contact which occurs with an opponent after the ball has become live that may result in injury (including a push, hold, trip, hack, elbow, restrain or charge).

Punching:
Personal foul where one player punches another.

Pushing:
Impeding the progress or otherwise moving a player by pushing or shoving.

Reaching In:
Extending an arm and making contact with a ball handler in an attempt to steal the ball.

Team Foul:
Each personal foul committed by a player is also counted against his team; when a team goes over the limit, its opponent is awarded free-throw opportunities.

Technical foul:
A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not involve player contact or the ball but is instead about the 'manners' of the game. Foul language, obscenity, obscene gestures, and even arguing can be considered a technical foul, as can technical details regarding filling in the scorebook improperly or dunking during warm-ups.

Tripping:
Extending a leg or foot and causing an opponent to lose balance or fall.

 

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